Benzodiazepines are used for the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, and prevention of seizures (convulsive attack) and muscle spasms. Benzodiazepines are sleep inducing in high doses, reduce anxiety in moderate doses, and are soothing medicine when taken in low doses. People who take high dose of benzodiazepines may appear drunk or relaxed. Benzodiazepines can be detected in specimen using Urine, Hair, and Saliva drug testing methods.
Urine Drug testing
Urine drug testing is one of the most convenient, easy, inexpensive, and reliable testing methods to find Benzodiazepines drug addiction. Urine drug test check for oxazepam specimen presence, a major metabolite of benzodiazepines. When concentration of the metabolite is present above the cut off levels, the test strip will display two red or pink bands, one each in Control region [C] and Test region [T], indicating a positive result. Positive screening results can be confirmed by sensitive methods like Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) test.
The Detection Period of benzodiazepines in urine is 3 days for prescribed use and 4 to 6 weeks for habitual use (for over one year). The screening tests cutoff concentration is 300 ng/mL and confirmation tests cutoff concentration is 200 ng/mL in urine.
Hair Drug Testing
A hair drug test for benzodiazepines uses a small sample of hair to recognize specified drug usage by the person being tested. Hair drug testing is most accurate form of testing over other measures of drug testing as it is performed in laboratory and very less affected by external factors. Hair drug test will not only identify drugs and its metabolites, but also can provide information on consumed quantity and even the drug abuse pattern. The hair drug testing can provide drug abuse history of up to 90 days. The detection period of benzodiazepines in hair is 90 days.
Saliva Drug Testing
Saliva or oral fluid-based drug tests are fast, reliable, convenient, and can detect whether the person has abused to drug in the last 5-10 minutes and unto last 72 hrs. Saliva or oral fluid based drug tests are widely accepted because of their convenience and the fact that they are less invasive, and very difficult to adulterate or contaminated. Donors have to give a sample by placing an absorbent collector in the mouth, or touching it on their tongue. Donors are not permitted to eat, drink, and brush teeth or floss (cleaning between teeth) before providing a sample. Simple on-site testing kits can detect the presence of benzodiazepines and show results in just five minutes. If results are positive, a GC/MS test should be done for confirmation.
Proper medication and treatment should be given to person, if confirmatory testing in any testing method reports positive result. Withdrawal symptoms of benzodiazepines are mainly anxiety-related and include convulsions, trembling, loss of appetite, and stomach problems. Abrupt stoppage of prescribed benzodiazepines can lead to these symptoms along with seizures and hyperactivity (attention deficit disorder).
By typographyimages from Pixabay