When choosing a DNA isolation technique, there are many factors to consider. The extraction of genomic DNA is much mroe simple than Plasmid DNA extraction and isolation because you only need to isolate the DNA from RNA when isolating genomic DNA, whereas in order to successfully isolate plasmid DNA, there are many more steps that need to be taken. If you have the more recent, advanced technology available, you will be able to complete this process much more efficiently as well.
There are a number of factors a researcher should look at before settling for the most appropriate technique. These will simply the work you will need to do to obtain your Genomic DNA samples.
How much output do you require? If you need very huge amounts of Genomic DNA, then you will be required to use a method that ensures high throughput yield. Using methods that cannot extract DNA in totality will end-up wasting your time. Luckily, there are more advanced molecular biology kits that enhance maximum reproducibility of Genomic DNA from the cell lysate.
Source of your Genomic DNA is also important. Sometimes it proves difficult to get the cell lysate from starting samples if the method of cell lysing is not efficient. Some cells are hard-to-lyse and as such, require advanced methods of lysing. These include gram+ve bacteria, some strains of fungi and plants cells. These cells types contain an extra coating in addition to the cell membrane. A researcher should therefore look for cell lysis kits or techniques that are able to disrupt even hard-to-lyse cell types.
Level of purity for the Genomic DNA obtained is yet another important aspect. Some DNA isolation techniques can result to very contaminated DNA samples. If your experiment needs very pure samples of Genomic DNA, you should go for specially made kits that will isolate only the DNA of interest. Such kits are able to isolate PCR ready-to-use DNA samples therefore, saving you valuable time of further DNA purification. This means that those molecular DNA isolation kits will have the ability to lyse and extract the DNA in one or few steps.
How much time do you have to commit? Usually, conventional DNA extraction methods are tedious and time consuming. They require implementation of long protocols to obtain best results. Single stepped Genomic DNA extraction protocols have been developed; thanks to advances in molecular technologies. It is now possible to extract DNA from whole cells in-a-record less than two minutes.
Most techniques used for denaturing proteins and separation of other cell debris are very hazardous due the reagents involved. The most commonly used methods utilize chloroform and Phenol which are both very hazardous. The lab technician has to take extra caution when extracting DNA using these two reagents. This is because chloroform is a carcinogen while phenol has an extremely low Ph, hence a strong acid; forming a double sided hazard. To come to this aid, biomedical companies have manufactured easy-to use compact kits that do not require the use of harsh chemicals. This uplifts the safety measures that are part of convectional Genomic DNA isolation methods.
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