The occurrence of energy and mineral deposits are determined by the geological characteristic of a region. Besides, these geo-resources are distributed unevenly across the earth, and consequently a region may fall into one of three categories; rich, partially rich, or poor. Moreover, there are only a few regions in the world which can be categorized as being rich in energy and mineral resources. Indonesia is quite fortunate because it can be regarded as a mineral-rich country, as its geologically prospective for the formation of various energy and mineral resources. Some of these deposits, particularly gold, silver, precious stones, quartz, coal, iron ore and building stones, have been utilized, since the early centuries when the Hindu and Chinese cultures entered this region.
Scientific exploration in Indonesia was introduced by the European geologists, particularly the Dutch, starting in the 18th century, after the industrial revolution in Europe. Since then, numerous energy and mineral resources such as oil and gas, geothermal, coal, gold, copper, tin, nickel, iron, aluminum, diamond, quartz and various non-metallic minerals and rocks, have been uncovered.
In line with this important discovery, the geological characteristic of Indonesia was also starting to be understood. This early data seems to have encouraged further geological investigations that have been continuously conducted until now. Exploration activities were continuously carried through after Indonesian independence, particularly since the late 60’s when an intensive National Development Program began, resulting in the discovery of many more energy and mineral deposits.
The occurrence of various energy and mineral resources in Indonesia constitute a competitive advantage, compared to many geologically-resource poor countries. Therefore, Indonesia is very fortunate in being able to make use of these resources to back up national economic development for the sake of the people’s prosperity, as declared in the Country’s Constitution of 1945. Although these resources have so far played an important role in supporting the country’s development program, improvement of resource management is urgently required to achieve a better performance in the future,rock phosphate grinding plant ,rock phosphate .
The significance of energy and mineral resources is clearly demonstrated by their utilizations since the ancient time up until the present day. As an example, earth and mineral materials have been the basic elements in producing numerous items such as bricks, roofing materials, flooring , cooking tools, cement, jewelry, fertilizer, perfumes, ceramic, paint, medical, and pharmaceutical products, cars, trains, air craft, electric and electronics devices, etc. Similarly oil and gas are the most important energy sources and constitute principal components in producing diverse petrochemical products such as plastics, paints, asphalt, fertilizer, lubricants, insecticides etc,iron ore beneficiation plant process Indonesia,iron(iron ore beneficiation plant process Indonesia).
The diverse energy and mineral resources in Indonesia should be able to act as the key driver for national economic recovery and just as importantly, give support to ongoing national development. With a few exceptions , most energy and mineral resources are non-renewable resources. Therefore, their development requires proper management, so they can be continuously advantageous not only for the present but also for the future generations. In addition, extractions of these resources potentially damage the environment, and accordingly careful handling and control are urgently needed to keep such damage to a minimum level.
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