Wine is nothing but a mixture of wild species of grapes, rice and different types of yeasts without the use of sugar, enzymes or any lactic acids. The word “wine” is a Latin word derived from indo-European countries.
Composition of wines: Wines consist of water to a large extent. In addition to this, wines also contain variety of acids such as lactic acids, ethyl acid, minerals such as iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, sulphates and vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin P.
There exist different types of wines according to the base product, two of which are listed below:
1) Fruit wine: ex-apple, berries
2) Vegetable wine: ex- wheat, barley
The production of wines was first found in places of Georgia and Iraq at around 6000 BC to 5000 BC. Traces of wines were also found in Greece, ancient Europe.
Cultivation of wines was started in North East areas at around 3000 BC. Cultivation of red and white wine, as we know them today, first started in Egypt, but wide-scale cultivation of wines began in Rome, which produced the best quality wine. They produced different flavors of wine.
Dry wine is one of the most popular types of wines. During fermentation, when sugar is converted into alcohol, the toxic alcohol kills the yeast and the resulting wine is called as dry wine. Wines are mainly produced from the grape species known as Vitis vinifera.
There exist different types of wines like red wine, white wine etc. They are distinguished on the amount of sugar used and the time required for fermentation.
A few types of wines are listed below:
1) Vintage wines: In order to produce a vintage wine it is a must that at least 95% of the volume of grapes used, are produced in a single year. They are mostly produced in USA.
2) Non vintage wines: They are produced from vintage wines itself. In these, at least 50% of the grapes used should have been produced in the same year.
3) Organic wines: Organic wines are produced from grapes without the use of fertilizers and pesticides. They do not contain any harmful material and are used to cure a number of diseases.
4) Red wines: They are produced from black grapes and are red in color. It prevents cancer and heart diseases because of its anti-inflammatory properties.
5) White wine: They are produced from white grapes; and they are pale yellow in color.
When alcohol is added in a wine it is called as fortified wine. Taste of wines depends on the drinker’s palate.
Vintage wines are costliest of all wines. They can cost thousands of dollars per bottle.
Some of the most expensive wines are Bordeaux and Cult wines.
France is the largest producer of wines. Italy is the second largest producer.
Italy is the largest exporter of wines.
Uses: Wine is the most popular beverage, and can also be used as a flavoring agent.
Wines also have a good effect on cardiovascular problems. Wines can also used for religious and ritual purposes.
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